Impact Parameter Dependent X Ray Investigations in Heavy Ion Heavy Atom Collisions

Author(s):
Sarvesh Kumar , Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi; Kajol Chakraborty, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, (U. P.); Lakshmi Dagar, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, (U. P.); Punita Verma, Kalindi College, University of Delhi, New Delhi

Keywords:
Heavy Atom Collisions, X Ray Investigations

Abstract:
The discovery of x-rays in 1895 marked the beginning of quantitative studies of atomic collisions. These investigations have made important contributions in formulation of modern concepts and theory of atomic physics. It is well known that x-rays emitted during heavy-ion collisions stem from the innermost shells of a quasi-molecule formed during the collision. These x-rays and impact parameter dependence of their emission probability holds crucial information about molecular orbital x-ray emission or charge exchange during interaction with solid targets. These super heavy quasi-molecules can be approached in relatively slow heavy ion-atom collisions which are slow compared to the orbital velocity of innermost electrons of concern. In order to probe the inner shell levels, vacancies have to be provided there. Since the vacancy production probability is primarily determined by electron emission into final states at the Fermi surface of the united atom, the energy transfer is essentially given by the binding energy of the bound state considered. In our investigations it has been calculated that to achieve the above desired system, an impact parameter range of (0.016-0-.023) a.u. is required. The experimental work has been planned to be done at Inter University Accelerator Center, India. 127 I-ions will be bombarded on heavy solid targets of 53I, 79Au and 83Bi. Targets of different thickness will be used to extrapolate to near “zero target thickness”‚(thinnest to 250 ¼g/ cm2) which are approximately the conditions under single collision conditions. The characteristic x-rays from the collision partners as well as MO x-rays will be detected by available x-ray detectors (a Si (Li) and a low energy Ge detector) to cover the entire energy range of K and L x-rays of the collision partners. For measurement of recoils at backward angles SBD/ (gas or annular) proportional counter will be used. A coincidence will be set up between the backward angle particle detectors and the x-ray to extract the impact parameter dependency of x-ray emission. Experimental data will then be compared with the data from correlation diagrams drawn on the basis of Self Consistent Field-Dirac Fock Slater (SCF-DFS) calculations for these systems for interpretation. Such a type of comparison will give a concrete idea about the couplings of the inner shells during such a slow ion-atom collision. A part of the investigations were presented as M.Sc. dissertation work of the second author.

I. AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT
The purpose of planning an impact parameter dependent ion atom collision experiment was to study the dependency of impact parameter on x-rays emitted during heavy ion heavy atom collision. This dependency holds crucial information about the inner shell couplings and hence vacancy transfer in a quasi-molecule (atomic energy levels of projectile and target overlap and hence the system behaves as a united atomic system) during a slow ion-atom collision. A detailed literature survey of similar experiments done in the past across the globe showed that for studying the above mentioned collisions, an impact parameter range of (0.016-0.023) atomic units was required. Thus a suitable experimental set up has been planned keeping the desired impact parameter range in mind at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC). To examine the impact parameter of scattered projectile and emitted x-rays in coincidence (observing the scattered projectile and x-rays emitted from the target simultaneously) a particle detector (parallel plate avalanche counter available at IUAC) will be used to detect the scatteredprojectile and Low energy germanium detectors (LeGe) will be used to detect the x-rays. As a part of pre-experimental preparations a detailed theoretical analysis was done for the planned experimental set up. Correlation diagrams for the chosen projectile target combinations have been drawn which will be used to analyze the results after performing the experiment.
After performing the experiment we would be able to get a concrete idea about how superheavy systems (combined atomic number of target and projectile should be greater than 130) behave under the conditions of single ion-atom collisions.

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IJSRD & TechFest 2014-15 (IIT-Bombay) presents TISC(Conference)

IJSRD is pleased to inform you that IIT Bombay presents Asia’s Largest Science and Technology Festival. TISC(Conference) event is supported by IJSRD. Techfest International Student Conference is an initiative to bring together the student community and professors with a common research background. TISC marks a step further in our endeavor to promote science and technology among the students by facilitating the exchange of knowledge between academia and industry. For more details, please visit the following link: www.techfest.org/conference

IJSRD is a leading e-journal, under which we are encouraging and exploring newer ideas of current trends in Engineering and Science by publishing papers containing pure knowledge. IJSRD is mainly started to help researching peers belongs to Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Research students. IJSRD aims to cover the latest outstanding development in the fields of Engineering and Technologies.For submitting paper online, click here: Submit Manuscript Online

ISSN (Online) : 2321-0613
Subject Category : Engineering Science and Technology
Frequency : Monthly, 12 issues per year
Published by : I.J.S.R.D. , INDIA
Impact Factor : 1.26

Medicine: Touch sensitive bionic arm | IJSRD

Researchers at the Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University have developed a new kind of interface that can convey a sense of touch from 20 spots on a prosthetic hand. It does this by directly stimulating nerve bundles—known as peripheral nerves—in the arms of patients; two people have so far been fitted with the interface. What’s more, the implants continue to work after 18 months, a noteworthy milestone given that electrical interfaces to nerve tissue can gradually degrade in performance.

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Research Lets do it !!! IJSRD 

Reason why it made the list: these breakthroughs in connecting electronic devices through the nervous system can eventually enable everything from artificial limbs to sensory organs like eyes and ears. It’ll probably be a while before we can plug into the Matrix though…

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#Techfest International Student #Conference #IJSRD – IIT

conferenceTechfest International Student Conference is an initiative to bring together the student community and professors with a common research background. TISC marks a step further in our endeavor to promote science and technology among the students by facilitating the exchange of knowledge between academia and industry.

Featured imageTechfest International Student Conference presents a unique opportunity for students to present their work in front of fellow students, senior professors from top universities, industrialists and policy-makers. It aims at giving recognition to students for their research at a relatively young age. An enriching experience to research oriented minds, TISC will give young scientists an insight into the topic, learn new ideas and build networks beneficial for the future.

The theme for the conference is Renewable Energy Systems, potentially the most important aspect of human life in forthcoming decades. TISC is being hosted by IIT Bombay, one of the premier institutes of science and technology in India known for its path-breaking research and quality education.

#IJSRD | Wireless Phone Charger: the uniqueness and the features

Wowhoo Wireless Phone Charger: the uniqueness and the features
blog#IJSRD | Research Lets Do it… #call for paper

Major wireless phone carriers have all been adapting the Qi wireless technology. Additionally many car manufactures are adding them to their 2014-2015 models. Manufactures include but are not limited to the following: Jeep, Toyota, Prius Harrier, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi aswell as Porsche.

Due to the new and improved design and usability our initial launch date has been revised from Jan 7th to March 1st. we added approximately 8mm to our diameter to allow a better internal design.  The small revision to the Wowhoo charger allow us to get that quicker charge which is most important. The 10% is a big jump in charging speed.

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Fusion Reactor Concept Could Be Cheaper Than Coal

University of Washington
Summary:
Engineers have designed a concept for a fusion reactor that, when scaled up to the size of a large electrical power plant, would rival costs for a new coal-fired plant with similar electrical output.
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Research . .  ? ?  Lets Do IT… #IJSRD

Fusion energy almost sounds too good to be true — zero greenhouse gas emissions, no long-lived radioactive waste, a nearly unlimited fuel supply.

Perhaps the biggest roadblock to adopting fusion energy is that the economics haven’t penciled out. Fusion power designs aren’t cheap enough to outperform systems that use fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas.

IJSRD is a leading e-journal, under which we are encouraging and exploring newer ideas of current trends in Engineering and Science by publishing papers containing pure knowledge.

University of Washington engineers hope to change that. They have designed a concept for a fusion reactor that, when scaled up to the size of a large electrical power plant, would rival costs for a new coal-fired plant with similar electrical output.

The team published its reactor design and cost-analysis findings last spring and will present results Oct. 17 at the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Fusion Energy Conference in St. Petersburg, Russia.

“Right now, this design has the greatest potential of producing economical fusion power of any current concept,” said Thomas Jarboe, a UW professor of aeronautics and astronautics and an adjunct professor in physics.

The UW’s reactor, called the dynomak, started as a class project taught by Jarboe two years ago. After the class ended, Jarboe and doctoral student Derek Sutherland — who previously worked on a reactor design at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology — continued to develop and refine the concept.

The design builds on existing technology and creates a magnetic field within a closed space to hold plasma in place long enough for fusion to occur, allowing the hot plasma to react and burn. The reactor itself would be largely self-sustaining, meaning it would continuously heat the plasma to maintain thermonuclear conditions. Heat generated from the reactor would heat up a coolant that is used to spin a turbine and generate electricity, similar to how a typical power reactor works.

“This is a much more elegant solution because the medium in which you generate fusion is the medium in which you’re also driving all the current required to confine it,” Sutherland said.

There are several ways to create a magnetic field, which is crucial to keeping a fusion reactor going. The UW’s design is known as a spheromak, meaning it generates the majority of magnetic fields by driving electrical currents into the plasma itself. This reduces the amount of required materials and actually allows researchers to shrink the overall size of the reactor.

Other designs, such as the experimental fusion reactor project that’s currently being built in France — called Iter — have to be much larger than the UW’s because they rely on superconducting coils that circle around the outside of the device to provide a similar magnetic field. When compared with the fusion reactor concept in France, the UW’s is much less expensive — roughly one-tenth the cost of Iter — while producing five times the amount of energy.

The UW researchers factored the cost of building a fusion reactor power plant using their design and compared that with building a coal power plant. They used a metric called “overnight capital costs,” which includes all costs, particularly startup infrastructure fees. A fusion power plant producing 1 gigawatt (1 billion watts) of power would cost $2.7 billion, while a coal plant of the same output would cost $2.8 billion, according to their analysis.

“If we do invest in this type of fusion, we could be rewarded because the commercial reactor unit already looks economical,” Sutherland said. “It’s very exciting.”

Right now, the UW’s concept is about one-tenth the size and power output of a final product, which is still years away. The researchers have successfully tested the prototype’s ability to sustain a plasma efficiently, and as they further develop and expand the size of the device they can ramp up to higher-temperature plasma and get significant fusion power output.

The team has filed patents on the reactor concept with the UW’s Center for Commercialization and plans to continue developing and scaling up its prototypes.

Other members of the UW design team include Kyle Morgan of physics; Eric Lavine, Michal Hughes, George Marklin, Chris Hansen, Brian Victor, Michael Pfaff, and Aaron Hossack of aeronautics and astronautics; Brian Nelson of electrical engineering; and, Yu Kamikawa and Phillip Andrist formerly of the UW.

The research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

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